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10月8日 刘春明:水稻胚乳发育、灌浆与营养物质累积的分子调控


题  目:水稻胚乳发育、灌浆与营养物质累积的分子调控

报告人:刘春明 北京大学

主持人:李    超 研究员

时  间:2021年10月8日9:00

地  点:闵行校区众发178娱乐534报告厅


报告人简介:

      刘春明教授现任北京大学二级教授,现代农学院院长;中国科学院植物所二级研究员,中国科学院大学岗位教授,农业农村部侨联副主席,中国作物学会副理事长兼秘书长,主要研究植物种子发育,特别是胚胎与胚乳发育的分子调控和细胞间信号转导分子机理。主要学术贡献包括提出了生长素的极性运输决定植物器官原基形成的理论;鉴定了一系列控制胚胎和胚乳发育核心基因;发现小分子多肽参与干细胞分化控制;解析了调控水稻灌浆关键转录因子NF-YB1控制水稻灌浆机理,发现DNA去甲基化酶ROS1弱突变可大幅度提升稻米营养品质。迄今为止已发表SCI论文120余篇,总被引 4000余次。参编【植物发育的分子机理】(许智宏、刘春明,1998年,科学出版社)和【植物细胞分化与器官发生】(2015年科学出版社出版)等教课书。2006年入选中科院“百人计划”择优支持,同年入选国家自然科学基金委杰出青年项目支持,2009年入选国务院政府特殊津贴;同年获“新中国60年最有影响力的期刊人”称号。


报告内容简介:

      水稻胚乳是世界上最主要的食物来源。成熟的水稻胚乳包括外面的糊粉层和内部的淀粉胚乳。所有水稻品种中的糊粉层均由单层活细胞组成,用于储存蛋白、脂类、维生素、以及锌、铁、钙等微量元素。糊粉层和淀粉层具有相同的发育起源,而关于这两个组织的细胞分化的分子机制尚不清楚。通过EMS诱变和半种子筛选,我们发现了两个糊粉层增厚的突变体,ta1和ta2,呈现糊粉层细胞数量增加和综合营养品质改良等特征。ta1纯合突变体具有3-5层糊粉层细胞,而ta2突变体包括5-10层糊粉层细胞。遗传学分析表明ta1表型呈典型孟德尔遗传,而ta2呈显配子体母本效应。我们通过图位克隆对这两个基因进行了克隆,并对其功能进行了精细分析。这次报告将介绍本课题组过去十年在该领域的研究成果以及利用该突变进行水稻营养品质改良的研究进展。

      The rice endosperm is one of the most important staple food resources in the world. In mature seeds, the rice endosperm consists of an outer layer of aleurone and an inner layer of starchy endosperm. The aleurone is comprised of a single layer of living cells that store mainly proteins, lipids, vitamins, zinc and iron, while the starchy endosperm is comprised of dead cells that accumulates mainly starch. Since aleurone and starchy endosperm have the same developmental origin, the genetic mechanism underlying the differentiation of these two tissues is still very much unknown. Through EMS mutagenesis and half-seed assay, we identified two thick aleurone (ta) mutants, ta1 and ta2, that have increased numbers of aleurone cell layers as compared to a single cell layer in the wild type. The homozygous ta1 mutant had three to four layers of aleurone cells, whereas homozygous ta2 mutant contained eight to ten layers of aleurone cells. Genetic analysis showed ta1 was controlled by a recessive Mendelian locus, while ta2 was controlled by a recessive locus with gametophytic maternal effect. Moreover, ta1 and ta2 seeds showed significantly increased nutrient contents such as protein, lipid, zinc and iron. In this seminar I will present the basic research we have been carried out in the area in the last ten years, and the most recent progresses made in rice nutrition improvement.